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FUNGI ARE THE FUTURE

    Cultivation of Medicinal & Gourmet Mushrooms:    

    This page will focus on the cultivation aspects of Mycology, where enthusiasts can learn how to produce their own mushrooms, right at home! All the information you could ever need, will be extensively covered on this page. Pictures, videos, and written tutorials(eventually). I will start with the Easiest techniques in Mushroom Cultivation. Scrolling further down the page will reveal more complex aspects of cultivation, including the exceedingly difficult cultivation of MYCORRHIZAL mushroom species.

 At the bottom of the page, you'll find the growth perimeters for all the species we offer. 

We also have the largest mushroom species bank in Canada, with over 70 different species available(the list continues to grow). We also offer a list of Mycorrhizal mushroom species which are available, nowhere else. Only here at Fungicopia!

  Cultivating Fungi for food or medicine is something that humans have only explored in the last 200 years, with most advancements in techniques in the last 30 years. Even though North Americans have only recently discovered how useful fungi can be, they have been utilized and cherished in Europe & Asia(most specifically in Japan) for hundreds of years. Fungi have played an integral role in the development of the human species, for thousands of years. From Otzi The Ice Man (Who carried the birch polypore and ‪Fomes fomentarius‬), to the postulation that: the missing link and rapid brain development may have been caused by our distant ancestors ingesting psychedelic mushrooms, to the making of cheese, powerful medicines like penicillin, and coloured dyes. It is, in my personal opinion, the most powerful and profound knowledge a person can attain. If you're interested in cultivating plants and mushrooms, you're already someone who enjoys the natural world. By tapping into the beauty and subtleties of nature, we tap into our true self. We are able to reach a new level of existence and understanding. The potential benefits that fungi can provide for future generations, is unimaginable. We will see fungi take the lead in terms of importance(Ahead of all flora and fauna), industrially, medically, environmentally, and agriculturally as we look to solve the problems we have created for ourselves. A deep understanding and incorporation of Fungi into culture, is necessary for us to create a balanced future of prosperity. I mean Fungi are already keeping our world alive, but people just dont recognize them, yet.

    Our future, as well as the entire planet's, may one day be saved by mushroom cultivators just like you. 

A couple tips I can offer anyone who is interested in growing mushrooms, would be:

    "Learn from your mistakes, there will be plenty. Everyone develops their own unique way of cultivating mushrooms with success, but making mistakes along the way is the only way to reach a true understanding. I dont know any professional Mycologists who simply entered the field and were a pro, they all had to fail miserably before they could develop a technique that works for them."

  "Don't give up. Simply realize that if you fail, whatever technique you used was insufficient. Research how other people are doing it, inquire with experts, and try again, with more attention to detail. Stick with whatever technique works for you."

  "If you're new to mushroom cultivation(ie, have grown less than 10 varieties of mushrooms), realize that you will not be reinventing the wheel. Almost everything you will discover for yourself, is already common knowledge to seasoned cultivators." 

                 What Is A Mushroom??

     Everyone remembers kicking a mushroom in a lawn or woods, at least once in their life, perhaps out of curiosity or disgust. The soft tissue, of colours ranging from bland to brilliant, explodes easily on impact. Surprise! You have just assisted the hidden mycelium(that produced the mushroom), by spraying spore covered debris across the lawn or throughout the woods! The mushroom or fruiting body is not a living organism, it is the reproductive organ of mycelium(the actual organism, often hidden under bark or leaf litter). A mushroom is, compared to the mycelium that is responsible for producing it, similar to an apple growing on a tree. The mushroom is an expendable vector for reproduction, just as the apple is for the tree, picking it correctly will do no damage to the organism. In fact, most plants and fungi alike rely on animals and invertebrates to consume them and disperse the seeds & spores, producing appealing scents and flavours to seemingly, entice. When the underground mycelium is exposed to just the right conditions(via temp, humidity, presence of an essential bacteria or nutrient), it will initiate its fruiting sequence and begin producing mushrooms! These basidiomycetes have pores or gills( even some with jets!) that produce millions to billions of spores, and with each spore dropped: the potential to grow into fresh mycelium and a whole new organism with a different genetic make up and better chance of survival. This allows fungi to invade some of the harshest climates in the world and why they are found globally. It also is a testament to the adaptability of fungal species and why they will become such an integral ally in the future of the human species. They certainly have the potential to solve many of our worlds Agricultural, Social, Industrial, Medical, and especially Environmental; issues and disasters.

Note*** When you pluck a mushroom, you are not hurting the actual organism. You are essentially "picking an apple from an apple tree"(I hate this analogy, but it works). The apple being the mushroom and the tree being the hyphae/mycelium. So long as you dont damage the hidden mycelium, everyone is safe and happy!


What Is Mycelium? The Life Cycle of All Basidiomycota

Above: An individual, filamentous, microscopic thread, called Hyphae. Only 1 cell wall thick, these 'threads' overlap and create a network of cells that communicate and work together.

Above: Rhizomorphic mycelium reaching to the edges of a petri dish. You can notice the nerve like structure, not unsimilar to the shape of plant roots.

    Mushrooms are created by complex organisms called MYCELIUM. Mycelium is a collective of living, micro filamentous structures(called Hyphae). These individual hyphae expand outward through nutritious substrates, excreting enzymes and secretions to breakdown and absorb their food. As humans, we ingest our nutrients orally and digest in our stomachs. Alternatively, Fungi  have an external method of digesting sustenance. The mycelium will continue to grow and expand through a substrate, until the substrate has been completely converted into mycelial biomass.  Mycelium is a collective of haploid cells that share a common goal. Absorbing enough nutrients to create a fruiting body and reproduce. These hyphae are incredibly complex and adaptable. They have been on Earth for over 500 million years, and are the oldest living organisms. In recent years, scientists discovered that there is most certainly fungal intelligence, but that we lack the conceptual capabilities to understand such an alien intelligence, especially Mycorrhizal fungi(which are social fungi that form a symbiotic relationships with ecto-mycorrhizal host plants). Mycelium will use each hyphae to continue reaching through nutrient rich substrates, in a very exploratory manner. When they reach a substrate that they are not accustomed to, the growth of the mycelium slows down, as they 'figure out' what enzymes are needed to break down the organic material into absorbable nutrients. Then you will see explosive, rapid growth! Not only do these hyphae secrete enzymes to break down nutrients, but they also create these enzymes to fight off competing fungi and bacteria. If the mycelium encounters a threat or competitor; it will surround and inhibit the other organism's growth, inevitably unlocking the enzymes needed to digest the competition and maintain its territory. When enough biomass is collected and the 'species specific' fruiting conditions are met, the monokaryotic hyphae will fuse into dikaryotic cells. These dikaryotic cells are then able to form a mushroom or fruiting body. 

Very often, customers will look at one of my mushroom kits and understandably inquire: "Are those spores?" 

In response, I calmly explain the 3 part life cycle, often to their amazement!
(Spore-Mycelium-Mushroom)

The Life Cycle of Mushroom Bearing Fungi

   Spores are generated on the basidia of the mushroom fruiting body.      Spores are like indestructible 'eggs' which can travel the entire globe on even the gentlest of air currents. They can even survive the vacuum of space! If these spores land on a nutrient rich substrate, they will grow into long thread like filaments called mycelium. The mycelium has the ability to learn and create a pharmacy of powerful compounds, especially to ward off or defeat competitor species. During the mycelium phase, the cells continue to consume and store biomass from whatever substrate they are growing within. This is coined "The Colonization Phase" of the mycelium's life cycle. When they have accumulated enough nutrients and the environmental conditions are correct, the monokaryotic cells fuse through a process called 'Plasmogamy', creating dikaryotic cells.

These dikaryotic cells are now capable of forming the primordia(juvenile mushroom). Once the primordia of a mushroom has formed, it uses cellular expansion to absorb the humidity from the surrounding area and the young primordia will swell, eventually becoming a fully developed mushroom or fruiting body.
The process then continues indefinitely and the most significant players in the decomposition cycle of Earth, continue to do their job and restore balance. 

             Various Types of Mycelium

There are 4 categories of fungi, based on the substrate they require to grow.          They are:


Parasitic Fungi - Rely on a living host to obtain sustenance, much to the hosts dismay. There are a couple gourmet parasitic fungi, such as the delicious Lobster Mushroom(Hypomyces lactifluorum) and Corn Smut(Ustilago maydis). Both of these fungi are highly sought after for their culinary appeal. Aside from Cordyceps militaris and Cordyceps sinensis(Ascomycetes), most parasitic fungi are collected from the wild and are too difficult to cultivate in a lab setting. The Lobster mushroom for example, is an Ascomycete parasitic fungi, which infects Russula brevipes(A mycorrhizal, bland tasting, white mushroom), which then contorts the body of the Russula into all sorts of strange shapes(most often resembling lobster), changes the colour to bright orange, gives it a lobster scent and flavour, and even goes as far as to completely cover the gills of the Russula, so that it is unable to drop spores and reproduce. How cruel! The difficulty with growing a lobster mushroom, would be that you would first need to successfully cultivate Russula brevipes, which is mycorrhizal and hasnt been done yet; to the best of my knowledge.


Coprophytic Fungi(Secondary Decomposers) - Rely on substrates that have already been broken down by another organism, such as dung or substrates that have been broken down by a Primary decomposer, previously. Such fungi include the psychedelic Psilocybe cubensis, the delicious Wine Cap( Stropharia rugosoannulata), and the typical mushrooms you find at any old grocery store: Portobello and white button mushrooms


*Saprophytic Fungi(Primary Decomposers) - Rely on dead or decaying substrate(comprised of wood and straw loving mycelium) for sustenance via external enzyme secretion. This group of fungi are the mushrooms that I most commonly cultivate. The majority of cultivatable delicious/nutritious gourmet mushrooms and powerful medicinal mushrooms, are often found in this group. These species include Reishi, Lions Mane, Various Oyster Mushrooms, Enokitake, Maitake, Shiitake, Nameko, Shimeji, Bears Tooth, etc etc 


**Mycorrhizal Fungi(Symbiotic Species)  - Form a mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of plants, creating a resilient/ rapid growing super organism. The mycelium of these fungi, do not break down organic matter in the same way as Saprophytic species. Instead, they spread underground in forests, obtaining nutrients though other micro-organisms(bacteria), which they communicate with and even 'farm' to their advantage. These mycorrhizal species absolutely need a host to grow in symbiosis with. Without a specific host tree or plant species, these fungi can not exist or complete their life cycle. The roots of a tree can only expand so far into the Earth and around the base of the tree. Mycorrhizal mycelium on the other hand, can spread thousands of kilometers(As observed, with the honey mushroom, the largest known organism on Earth) and bring otherwise, unavailable nutrients back to the tree. Mycelium also generates moisture as a bi-product of growing through a substrate. Water and other nutrients such as Nitrogen, are returned to the tree roots(much to its benefit). In exchange, the host tree will share some of the extra sugars it generates, with the mycelium. These sugars are necessary for the mycorrhizal species to generate a fruiting body.

   The most important organisms on the planet, are those fungi that create a symbiotic relationship with plants. There is a powerful correlation between the health of a forest and the abundance of mycorrhizal species found within. It's been postulated and then observed, that plants can use these 'hyphae highways' as an information network, similar to the neuron connections in the brain and those that connect us on the internet. We understand the base idea behind mycorrhizal mycelium and symbiosis, but we cant wrap our heads around the complexity and dynamic of the microscopic world surrounding such species and the fact that one specimen could be connected and interacting with several hundred species of microorganisms at one time. We may need a quantum computer to run the numbers for us!!

Mycology Terminology & Lingo You Should Know

Listed below are some common mycology terms that are used frequently by mycologists and on this site

G2G
  -    Grain to Grain transfer
PDA   -    Potato-dextrose agar
MDA   -    Malt- dextrose agar
Isolate/Isolation  - When tiny segments of mycelium genetics are sectioned and cut out of colonized agar, to grow on another medium or expand the mycelium. This is an excellent way to select particular growth traits.
FAE   -    Fresh air exchange refers to how much fresh air is replacing old stagnant air. This is a crucial component of fruiting and is mentioned heavily in the mycology community.
Fruit  -    A mushroom or fruiting body.
BE -   Biological Efficiency.
Pin or Primordia - The beginning stage of a mushroom, a small 'pin' like bump or 'knot' in the hyphae. 
Glove box  -  Sterile, still air tub or box that mycologists use to do their inoculations without getting contamination. Effective use of the sterile technique is the only way to proceed.
RH -  Relative Humidity refers to the amount of moisture in the surrounding air, it is represented by the percentage needed to create saturation
Fruiting Chamber/Room  -  An area with plenty of fresh air exchange(FAE) and high Relative Humidity(RH), where your mushrooms will form and develop.
Substrate -  Organic matter needed in order to cultivate mushrooms. Depending on the species you want to grow, you'll be using cereal grains for spawn, then wood, straw, coconut coir, manure, etc as a final sub.

Broad Overview Of Various Cultivation Techniques 

If you are a more experienced cultivator or feel like trying your hands at the more complex aspects of Mushroom Cultivation, this section will teach you how to reach your goals. There are many ways to reach the same final result. You will learn and modify your techniques and eventually have your own special method that works well for you. 

Mushroom Log Cultivation 

The easiest method for growing your own mushrooms, year after year; is to create your own mushroom logs! Growing mushrooms outside on logs, is the preferred cultivation technique for new growers or people living within the city or with limited indoor space. Roughly, you simply inoculate freshly cut logs with an acceptable species and wax over the holes. Most hardwood logs will produce for over 4 years with oak and iron wood producing for upwards of 8 years. For more information on how to inoculate and maintain, watch the youtube video posted below!

New Cultivators Should Consider: The EZ-Fruit Kits

  If you're new the addictive hobby of cultivating your own gourmet & medicinal mushrooms, theres a lot to learn. It can seem like a very complex hobby, but after learning the basics and getting comfortable with a couple different strains, you'll be growing your own mushrooms with ease. A great way to get into the hobby, is to try and pre-made kit, where most of the complicated sterile work has already been accomplished. With the EZ-Fruit kit, youre able to concentrate on one of the more important stages of mushroom growing; the Fruiting process(Getting mushrooms to form from the kit). All you need to do is, subject the colonized sawdust/straw block, to high humidity and fresh air exchange. This can be as simple as placing the kit into a plastic tote and misting daily, or for more devoted mushroom cultivators; you can build a fruiting chamber that is somewhat automated. See below for more information about constructing a fruiting chamber. 
The size of your mushroom kit, will determine how much mushrooms you can produce. For example, the 1L EZ-Fruit mushroom kits are the smallest I offer and will produce at least 2 flushes of mushrooms. I consider this the "sample size", it will produce just enough mushrooms for you to cook and sample each variety of mushroom. Each flush will produce enough mushrooms for a person to cook a meal and try the flavour & texture of a particular strain. I recommend the 4L blocks for people who want to produce enough mushrooms to feed a family or group of friends.
 The EZ-Fruit kits are the easiest way to grow mushrooms quickly, and successfully!

EZ-Fruit Mushroom Kits(100% Guaranteed success)

Difficulty: The Easiest. 
  Great for children or anyone new to cultivating mushrooms. Also great for trying a new type of mushroom that you haven't tasted before!
  
  Simply place the kit in a plastic tote or something with a lid, that will allow the humidity to remain over 80%. Remove the filter patch from the kit, or cut holes in an X pattern wherever you want the mushrooms to grow from.  Remove the lid of the tote a few times a day to mist(with a spray bottle), and fan for fresh air exchange. Within days, you will see small mushrooms forming. Within 2 weeks, you will have fully developed mushrooms that you can pick and cook for dinner! Once you pick a flush of mushrooms, the kit will have shrunk noticeably in size. This is because the mycelium uses a lot of water to create the mushrooms. This mycelium must be re-hydrated before it can produce another impressive flush of mushrooms. Increase the frequency of your misting routine, or perform a cold-water shock by submerging the kit in a 5 gallon bucket of cold water, with something metal to hold it down. Leave it submerged for anywhere from 6-10 hours, but notice that the mycelium will be much more fragile after removing it from the water, be delicate with it. Within a few days, the next flush of mushrooms will start forming primordia. 
Each kit will typically produce 3 flushes of delicious mushrooms. 
We offer a wide variety species and kit sizes 1L, 2L, 5lb, & 10lb monster kits!
 If you want to grow a bunch of mushrooms, I recommend a larger kit. The amount of mushrooms each kit produces, is largely dependent on the amount of substrate used to grow it. Larger kit = More mushrooms!

Above: This is the smallest kits I sell, the 1L EZ-Fruit kit.
These are great for new cultivators because of their small size. Clean, no smell, and quick to produce!
Species: Golden Oyster

 *      

Below: These are the 4L kits, they produce much more than the 1L sample kit! Each 4L kit will produce between 1-3lbs, depending on the species grown.
Species: Blue Oyster

Above: Some species are easier to grow on small substrates.
Species: White Elm Oyster

Right:
 Some species grow well on larger substrates
Species: Pink Oyster 

Below: This is a 2L kit, and as you can see, the yield is much higher than you would anticipate!
Species: Nameko

The Most Significant Aspect of Mushroom Cultivation:
The Sterile Technique 

  Before we get too deep, allow me to explain one of the most difficult aspects of Mushroom Cultivation.                  Sterility.

  There are invisible spores, pollen, and microbes in every single breath of air that we inhale. Now, these are not significant most of the time as most healthy people can handle these very small amounts of contaminants, with no noticeable effect. Just being aware that there is no such sterile surface or area in our day to day lives, is half the battle. You must assume that every time you are doing lab work, that there are contaminants present, unless of course you spend the money and purchase a Laminar Flow Hood(but I recommend you start with a glove-box and learn the hard lessons first).

When most people think of sterility, they think hospitals, kitchens, wiping the counter off with a soapy cloth etc. All 3 of these things are not even close to 100% sterile, no matter how thoroughly they have been wiped down. As you will soon realize, the cultivation of mushrooms requires the highest level of sterility you will ever encounter in your life(100% sterile). If even a single mold spore, not visible to the naked eye, lands in one of your grain jars or on a petri dish; you will lose everything you have worked on. Although mushroom mycelium is more complex than bacteria or mold, in a closed Anaerobic(lack of fresh air) environment, contaminants will thrive and explode in growth. 

Creating Your Own Grain Spawn & Inoculating Jars

When cultivating mushrooms, remember that mushroom mycelium "learns" as it grows on different substrates. It creates different enzymes based on what it has to break down. There is a natural progression that mycelium undertakes when growing from spores. It will first have to grow on a simple sugars(honey, dextrose), then more complex carbohydrates(grains), then on to the final fruiting substrate, which is most often supplemented straw or wood: logs, chips, sawdust.


In my opinion, this is the most important part of growing mushrooms; learning how to G2G transfer is essential to anyone who wants to grow enough mushrooms to feed their family. Simply put, you need colonized grains to colonize a final complex substrate like wood or straw. The grain is starter nutrition for the mycelium, as mycelium needs sugars and carbohydrates for its initial growth. You cant just inject spores into sterilized sawdust or logs.


After you have successfully attained a spore(or lc) syringe either by making yourself one or purchasing one, you can then colonize a grain substrate to either fruit or colonize other grain jars! You can turn one colonized rye grain jar into 10 using a G2G transfer, its quite impressive to see the expansion.


You can inoculate grain jars in a lot of different ways. Liquid cultures or spore syringes can be injected through a self healing port on the lid of sterilized grains. Agar wedges can be gut from master cultures and placed in the jar. Even colonized cardboard can grow out in grains. 


How To Prepare Rye Berries For Inoculation Simple Method

-Bucket 

-Jars

-Pressure cooker(Must be able to reach 15PSI).

-Warm Water

-Grains (Rye or Wheat Berries)

-Gypsum(Not essential, just keeps grains from sticking together)


1) Fill bucket with warm water

2) Dump in grains, remember, they will double in size

3) Stir water up with hands or spoon for 30 seconds,  strain out the dirty water and repeat the process until water runs clean

4)  Depending on how much grains you are making, use about 5-10% Gypsum by weight, if you have it. No biggy

5) Allow grains to sit overnight or for 10-12 hours. Dont forget about them, after 24 hours the seeds will begin sprouting and are then useless

6) Drain the remaining water and fill mason jars with micropore filter lids(and self healing injection port), about 3/4 full

7) Pressure cook the grain jars at 15psi for 90 minutes. 

8) Allow pressure cooker to cool for a few hours or overnight 

9) When the jars have cooled, you may inoculate them with syringes or wedges of colonized agar.

10) With most species in Liquid culture form, you will see growth within 48 hours. If using a Spore syringe, it could take over a week before you even see signs of life. If you messed up the process, you simply weren't sterile enough with your technique. Contaminants will show themselves very quickly, as they grow faster than mycelium and dont need fresh air to reproduce. The most common contaminants are molds & bacteria, which I will shown below.

                Creating Grain Spawn

Cardboard Cloning

A great method for amateur mycologists to grow saprobic(wood loving) mushrooms, is to experiment with cardboard strips and clean(even store bought) mushroom tissue. The tissue is placed between the cardboard and within 48 hours, you should return to see thick white mycelium. Also a great way to obtain myclium for agar dishes!

Agar and Growing Mycelium On Petri Dishes

Using petri dishes and cutting slices of agar wedges to inoculate grain substrates is not necessary to grow mushrooms. It is however the apex of growing and all masters of mycology recognize that working with agar has numerous benefits, including: Excellent, even fruiting bodies, isolation of particular traits, and creating mono cultures.


First you have to decide what kind of agar recipe you want to use. Every mycologist uses their own special agar recipe and everyone thinks theirs is the best. However, I have found that simple recipes work just as well and cheaper. A simple PDA will grow almost any cultivatable species.



Here is the standard PDA recipe for you all to use:


-500ml water

-150g of potato or 1 small-medium sized potato

-9g agar powder

-teaspoon of honey

                                          

 1- Boil 150 grams of sliced/cubed potatoes in 500ml of water - for 20 min

2 - When finished, strain the precious liquid from the remaining potatoes and toss the chunks out.

3 - Add 9 grams of agar powder and a teaspoon of honey or dextrose, then stir & cook for another 5 min

4 - Pour into mason jar or pressure cooker safe bottle, with a loose lid

5 - Pressure cook for 20 minutes 

6 - *BE CAREFUL*  Place bottle of hot agar in your lab glove box or in front of your laminar flow hood. Place jars or plates that you want to fill in box. You have to pour agar while it is still hot or else it will thicken. This can be dangerous as the jars are very hot, use caution. 

7 - Pour the agar into the containers and cover with lids immediately.

8 - Allow cooling

9 - Inoculate!       

Spore Prints

Before you can start growing mushrooms, you must attain either a live tissue sample(sterile) or spores and start a clean, fast growing culture. 


Mushroom spores are very important to mycologists for many reasons. For one, it is the only way to escape the grasp of  senescence. You can not clone mycelium infinitely, it does sadly, age and die. However, if you clone and fruit a species, you can take spores from its fruit and continue using a similar set of genetics. Each species of fungi will have a certain spore colour that you will be able to see when millions of them pile up. This is a very important part in identifying wild foraged species that can not be distinguished from their physical appearance. 


You can collect spores on paper, tin foil(recommended), or glass. To do this, cut the cap off of a mushroom and place gills down on the surface you want the spores to drop on. Place a cup or glass over the mushroom to stop airflow completely. Leave for 10-16 hours and check for spores!

It should have an exact copy of the underside of the cap in an infinite range of colours based on species.


*Hint - If you know a certain species will have light coloured spores, put the caps on dark coloured paper. If you know another species has dark spores, put the caps on white paper!


Some people make art pieces out of spore prints :)

Spore Syringe - Starting A Culture

The easiest way for beginner mycologists to start growing their own mushrooms, is to attain species via spore or liquid culture syringes. With these, you can inoculate a grain jar or agar petri dish!

Making a spore syringe -

Step 1: Take clean spore print and place in glovebox with tools needed. In this case, a bottle with sterile water, spore print, scalpel or scraper, and a syringe.

2: Scrape the spores from off the spore print and into the bottle of water. You dont have to use a whole spore print, typically, 1 print can make 4 powerful spore syringes. 

3: Flame sterilize syringe needle until its bright yellow, away from alcohol or gases. 

4: Stick the end of syringe into the water and listen for hiss, then proceed to suck up the spore water and shoot it back into the bottle a few times. This breaks the spore masses down and disperses them throughout the syringe.

5: When you have a full syringe, flame sterilize once more and place cap on the needle. You now have a spore syringe that you can use to grow mycelium on agar or in grain jars! Congrats

Liquid Cultures & LC Syringes

The best bang for your buck for beginner and professional mycologists alike is creating bulk liquid cultures! Almost any glass jar will work nicely as long as the lid will seal air tight. You simply mix in a small solution of simple sugars, either malt or honey, and some spores or live tissue sample, into a jar and watch them grow over the next few days! 


To make a liquid culture syringe, simply take your LC jar, flame sterilize your syringe needle, after and before each time you use it. Suck up some of the mycelium mass and shoot back out, you want to break it up so you can suck it up into the syringe. Then once you can see the mycelium inside the syringe, flame sterilize and cap. 

Badda shroom, badda bing.

You can now let the mycelium in the syringe grow for a few days or inoculate grains right away

Grain Jars

Supplemented Sawdust Blocks

Difficulty: Very Easy

 Species Based Growth Perimeters 

Maitake(Grifola frondosa)

Maitake likes to colonize whatever substrate it's growing on, with at first, thin and wispy mycelium, thickening as it grows larger. It will grow fine at room temperature, but needs a slightly lower temperature to fruit.

      Spawn Run(15-25 days)

Optml Temperature: 70-76*

(C02): 20,000-40,000ppm

Light: None


Primordia Formation(5 days)

Temp to initiate pins: 50-60*

(C02): 2000-5000ppm

Fresh air exchange: 4-6 times per day

Light: slight amount


Fruit Body Formation(22-30 days)

Optimal fruiting temp: 55-65*

(C02): No more than 1000ppm

Humidity: 80-90%

Fresh air exchange: 4-8 times per day

Light: 700-1000 lux


Lions Mane(Hericium erinaceus)

        Spawn Run:

Incubation Temperature: 70-75* F (21-24* C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100�

Duration: 10-14 days

CO2: 5000-40,000 ppm

Light Requirements: n/a


Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temperature: 50-60* F (10-15.6* C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100

Duration: 3-5 days

CO2: 500-700 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 5-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux


Fruitbody Development:

Temperature: 65-75* F (18-24* C)

Relative Humidity: (85) 90-9

Duration: 4-5 days

CO2: 500-1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 5-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux


Shiitake(Lentinula edodes)

      Spawn Run: 

Incubation Temp: 70-80F (21-27C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 35-70 days depending of isolate and strain

Carbon Dioxide: >10,000 ppm

Light Requirements: 50-100 lux


Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temp: 50-60F (10-16C) for cold weather strains; 60-70F (16-21C) for warm weather strains

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 5-7 days

Carbon Dioxide: <1,000 ppm

Light Requirements: 500-2,000 lux at 370-420nm


Fruitbody Development:

Temp: 50-70F (10-21C) cold weather strain; 60-80F (16-27C) warm weather strain

Relative Humidity: 60-80%

Duration: 5-8 days

Carbon Dioxide: <1,000 ppm

Light Requirements: 500-2,000 lux at 370-420nm


Golden Oyster(Pleurotus citrinopileatus)

Spawn Run:

incubation Temperature: 75-85* F (24-29* C)

Relative Humidity: 90-100%

Duration: 10-14 days

CO2: 5000-20,000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 1-2 per hour


Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temperature: 70-80* (90*) F (21-27* (32*) C)

Relative Humidity: 98-100%

Duration: 3-5 days

CO2: <1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux.


Fruitbody Development:

Temperature: 70-85* F (21-29* C)

Duration: 3-5 days

CO2: <1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux


Pink Oyster(Pleurotus salmonestreus)

           Spawn Run(8 days)

Optml Temperature: 75-85*

(C02): No more than 5000ppm

Light: None


Primordia Formation(3 days)

Temp to initiate pins: 65-70*

(C02): 500-1000ppm

Fresh air exchange: 4-8 times per day

Light: 1000-1500 lux


Fruit Body Formation(3 days)

Optml Fruiting temp: 75-85*

(C02):1000-1500ppm

Humidity: 90%

Fresh air exchange: 8-10 times per day

Light:1000-1500 lux




Blue Brat Oyster(Pleurotus ostreatus var. brat)

Spawn Run:

Incubation Temperature: 75* F (24* C)

Relative Humidity: 85-95%

Duration: 12-21 days

CO2: 5000-20,000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 1 per hour

Light Requirements: n/a


Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temperature: 50-60* F (10-15.6* C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 3-5 days

CO2: <1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 100-1500 lux


Fruitbody Development:

Temperature: 60-70* F (10-21* C)

Relative Humidity: 85-90%

Duration: 4-7 days

CO2: <1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 1000-1500 lux


White Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus)

Spawn Run:

Incubation Temperature: 75* F (24* C)

Relative Humidity: 85-95%

Duration: 12-21 days

CO2: 5000-20,000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 1 per hour

Light Requirements: n/a


Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temperature: 50-60* F (10-15.6* C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 3-5 days

CO2: <1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 100-1500 lux


Fruitbody Development:

Temperature: 60-70* F (10-21* C)

Relative Humidity: 85-90%

Duration: 4-7 days

CO2: <1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 1000-1500 lux



Nameko(Pholiota nameko)

    Spawn Run:

Incubation Temperature: 75-85* F (24-29* C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 2 weeks

CO2: >5000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 0-1

Light Requirements: n/a


Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temperature: 50-6-* F (10-15.6* C)

Relative Humidity: 98-100%

Duration: 7-10 days

CO2: 500-1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux


Fruitbody Development:

Temperature: 55-65* F (13-18* C)

Relative Humidity: 90-95%

Duration: 5-8 days

CO2: 800-1200 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux.





Reishi(Ganoderma Species)

      Spawn Run:

Incubation Temperature: 70-80* F (21-27* C)

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 10-20 days

CO2: Tolerated up to 50,000 ppm or 5%

Fresh Air Exchanges: 0-1

Light Requirements: n/a


Primordia ("Antler") Formation
:
Initiation Temperature: 65-75* F (18-24* C)
Relative Humidity: 95-100%
Duration: 14-28 days
CO2: 20,000-40,000 ppm
Fresh Air Exchanges: 0-1
Light Requirements: 4-8 hours at 200-500 lux

Primordia ("Young Conk") Formation:
Temperature: 70-80* F (21-27* C)
Relative Humidity: 95-100%
Duration: 14-28 days
CO2: 2000-5000 ppm
Fresh Air Exchanges: As required for maintaining desired CO2.
Light Requirements: 12 hours on/off 750-1500 lux.


Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits

Available in:

-Liquid Culture Syringes

-Agar Wedges

-Colonized Spawn

-Petri Dish with PDA

-Grow Kits